Category Archives: Human Resource

Advantages of HRP

Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.

The process of HRP plays a very important role in the organization. The importance of HRP can be explained as follows.

1. Anticipating future requirement:

Through this process of HRP, the company is able to find out how many people will be required in future. Based on this requirement the company could take further actions. This method also helps the company to identify the number of jobs which will become vacant in the near future.

2. Recruitment and selection process:

The recruitment and selection process is a very costly affair for a company. Many companies spend lakhs of rupees on this process. Therefore recruitment and selection must be carried out only if it is extremely necessary. HRP process helps to identify whether recruitment and selection are necessary or not.

3. Placement of personnel:

Since the HRP process is conducted for the entire organization, we can identify the requirements for each and every department. Based on the requirement, we can identify existing employees and place them on those jobs which are vacant.

4. Performance appraisal:

HRP make performance appraisal more meaningful. Since feedback is provided in performance appraisal and employee is informed about his future chances in same company, the employee is motivated to work better. Information for all this is collected from HRP process.

5. Promotion opportunity:

HRP identifies vacancies in the entire organization including all the branches of all the company. Therefore when the company implements promotion policy it can undertake its activities in a very smooth manner.

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Structural Issues in the Delivery of Training

According to the dictionary, Training is the action of teaching a person or animal a particular skill or type of behavior. It is the action of undertaking a course of exercise and diet in preparation for a sporting event.

In management perspective it can be defined as organized activity aimed at imparting information and/or instructions to improve the recipient’s performance or to help him or her attain a required level of knowledge or skill.

Training consists of planned programs designed to improve performance at the individual, group, and or organizational level. Improve performance ultimately bring the measurable changes in the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and or social behavior.

Structural Issues in the Delivery of Training

Following are some key issues require to be addressed if we want to get any optimum results of any training system.

1. Corporate Commitment Is Lacking Uneven

Most of the companies in the past were not expanding much on the training but fortunately the trend is being changed because of competition in the market, introduction of latest technical equipment. The workers have to learn three kinds of skills, which are as follow.

–   The ability to use the new technology

–   The ability to maintain it

–   The ability to diagnose system problems

2. Business Complains Against Education System

The business complains that school award degrees, but the degrees are no guarantee that graduates have mastered skills.  37% workforce are lacking basic skills, this was revealed by the executives in the recent survey, 15% companies providing training in math and 10% providing aid in reading. In Pakistan this figures can be much less as compare to USA.

3. Poaching Trained Workers

This is a major problem and provides a strong disincentive for training. The knowledge is becoming a necessity of the employees as the days passing so more value should be given to this vary aspect.

4. Lack of Funding Resulting In Downsizing.

The governments is not providing enough funds for retaining to help workers displaced as result of downsizing or of the defuse contraction. So workers must becomes technically sound to safe guard their future.

5. Business Requires To Be Supported By The Government

Educated person like graduates be incorporated in the business, the government may extend its help in implementation of this plan.

6. Employees And School Must Develop Closer Ties.

It can bring the great change of the economy of any country if this factor started being implemented by these two pliers of a nation.

 

Nature and Emergence of Diversity

Source:

http://www.studylecturenotes.com/management-sciences/human-resource-management/95-diversity-nature-and-characteristics-of-diversity

What is Diversity?

Diversity describes the similarities and differences that people have. Diversity simply refers to human characteristics that make people different from one another. In the last few years, the changing composition of the organizational work force (diversity) has had dramatic effects on the study and application of management and organizational behavior.  Now organizations are beginning to realize that diversity is not just something to deal with, but instead a reality to build on to make a stronger, more competitive enterprise.

Diversity has traditionally emphasized the differences among people in a group or organization.  Now that the demographic projections of a few years ago have become a reality the workforce is older and has an increasing percentage of women and racial/ethnic minorities, there is an emerging perspective on diversity as an all-inclusive mixture of differences and similarities.

Reasons for the Emergence of Diversity

A major reason for the emergence of diversity as an important challenge is changing demographics. Older workers, women, minorities, and those with more education are now entering the workforce in record number. The competition of today’s and tomorrow’s workforce is and will be much different from that of the past.

Another pragmatic reason for emergence diversity in today’s organizations stems from legislation and lawsuits. These laws, along with lawsuits and the threat of lawsuits, have put teeth into diversity. The political and legal systems have compelled organization to hire more broadly and to provide equal opportunity for all employees.

Still another reason for the importance and emergence of diversity to organization is the realization that diversity can help them meet the competitive pressures they currently face. Organizations valuing diversity end up with a more talented and capable workforce than those that do not take such a proactive, affirmative action approach.

Moreover, companies that gain a reputation for “celebrating diversity” are more likely to attract best employees regardless of age, gender, or ethnicity.  The most talented and qualified people will feel that opportunities are better with these firms than with others.  In other words, diversity can provide an organization with competitive advantage.

Company performance is measured in three different ways:  Productivity, return on equity, and market performance.  Results demonstrated that diversity not only adds value but, in the proper context, also contributes to a firm’s competitive advantage.  There is growing practical evidence that diversity leads to innovation and often breakthrough competitive advantages.

A final major reason for the emerging of diversity is that more and more organizations are entering the international arena. A natural by-product of going international is increased diversity, in this case cultural diversity. If domestic organizations have and promote diversity, then, as they expand globally, they will be accustomed to working with people with people who have different cultures, customs, social norms, and mores.  The international arena, thus, is not a threatening place for diverse firms, a fact that is particularly important because of the major role that international operations and sales will play in the growth, and even survival, of companies in the global economy.

Need for HRP at Macro Level

Human Resource Planning is a mandatory part of every organization’s annual planning process. Every organization that plans for its business goals for the year also plans for how it will go about achieving them, and therein the planning for the human resource

Major reasons for the emphasis on HRP at macro level include:

 

1. Employment Unemployment Situation

Though in general the number of educated unemployed is on the rise, there is acute shortage for a variety of skills. This emphasizes the need for more effective recruitment and retaining people.

2. Technological Changes

The myriad changes in production technologies, marketing methods and management techniques have been extensive and rapid. Their effect has been profound on job contents and job contexts. These changes cause problems relating to redundancies, retraining and redeployment. All these suggest the need to plan manpower needs intensively and systematically.

3. Organizational Changes

In the turbulent environment marked by cyclical fluctuations and discontinuities, the nature and pace of changes in organizational environment, activities and structures affect manpower requirements and require strategic considerations.

4. Demographic Changes

The changing profile of the work force in terms of age, sex, literacy, technical inputs and social background have implications for HRP.

5. Skill Shortages

Unemployment does not mean that the labour market is a buyer’s market. Organizations have generally become more complex and require a wide range of specialist skills that are rare and scarce. Problems arise when such employees leave.

6. Governmental Influences

Government control and changes in legislation with regard to affirmative action for disadvantaged groups, working conditions and hours of work, restrictions on women and child employment, casual and contract labout, etc. have stimulated the organizations to become involved in systematic HRP.

7. Legislative Controls

The days of executive fiat and ‘hire and fire’ policies are gone. Now legislation makes it difficult to reduce the size of an organization quickly and cheaply. It is easy to increase but difficult to shed the fat in terms of the numbers employed because of recent changes in labour law relating to lay-offs and closures. Those responsible for managing manpower must look far ahead and thus attempt to foresee manpower problems.

8. Impact of Pressure Groups

Pressure groups such as unions, politicians and persons displaced from land by location of giant enterprises have been raising contradictory pressures on enterprise management such as internal recruitment and promotions, preference to employees’ children, displace persons, sons of the soil etc.

9. Systems Concept

The spread of systems thinking and the advent of the macro-computer as part of the on-going revolution in information technology which emphasizes planning and newer ways of handling voluminous personnel records.

10 Lead Time

The long lead time is necessary in the selection process and for training and deployment of the employee to handle new knowledge and skills successfully.

Human Resource Planning

Planning for human resource is more important than planning for any other resource as demand for the later depends upon the size and structure of the former whether it is in a country or in an industry. Further, management of human resources hardly begins from human resources planning .In fact it is the basis for most of the other functions

Human resource planning can be defined as the process of identifying the number of people required by an organization in terms of quantity and quality. All human resource management activities start with human resource planning. So we can say that human resource planning is the principle/primary activity of human resource management.

From human resource planning the organization identifies how many people it has currently and how many people will be required in future. Based on this information major human resource decisions are taken.

As defined by Bulla and Scott (1994) it is ‘the process for ensuring that the human resource requirements of an organization are identified and plans are made for satisfying those requirements’.

Human resource planning is based on the belief that people are an organization’s most important strategic resource. It is generally concerned with matching resources to business needs in the longer term, although it will sometimes address shorter term requirements.

It addresses human resource needs both in quantitative and qualitative terms, which means answering two basic questions: first, how many people, and second, what sort of people? Human resource planning also looks at broader issues relating to the ways in which people are employed and developed in order to improve organizational effectiveness. It can therefore play an important part in strategic human resource management.

Objectives of HRP

  • Ensure optimum utilization of human resources currently employed;
  • Assess or forecast future requirements;
  • Formulate transfer and promotion policies
  • Cope up with the changing scenario;
  • Attaching with business plans of organization;
  • Anticipate redundancies;
  • Control the cost aspect of human resource
  • Provide basis for human resource development (HRD); and
  • Assist in productivity bargaining.
  • provide control measure to ensure availability of necessary resources when required
  • Make best use of minimal resource

Benefits of HRP

  • Proper HRP results into a number of benefits. Some of them are:
  • Create reservior of talent.
  • Preparation for future HR needs.
  • Promote employees in a systematic manner.
  • Provide basis for HRD.
  • Help in career and succession planning

Human resources planning may be viewed as foreseeing the human resource requirements of an organization and the future supply of human resources and

  1. Making necessary adjustments between these two and organizational plans
  2. Foreseeing the possibility of developing the supply of human resources in order to match it with requirements by introducing necessary changes in the functions of human resources management.

In this definition, human resource means skill knowledge, values, ability, commitment, motivation etc., in addition to the number of employees.

Challenges of HRM in Indian Economy

The job of HRM department in India has never been so challenging. Last decade has witnessed tectonic shift in Job market. From being an employer’s market, it has suddenly turned into employee’s market, especially in the most crucial segment, ie middle management. Globalization and India’s growing stature in the world has seen demand for Indian managers soaring. From the state of plenty, there is a stage of scarcity of the right talent. The biggest challenge is to retain the talent one has so assiduously hunted and trained. The attrition rate has reached alarming proportions. It has reached such proportions that certain segments of Industry are maintaining bench strengths to fill in the sudden gaps due to resignations. In addition, there are following new issues:

1. Globalization

Growing internationalization of business and workforce has its impact on HRM in terms of problems of unfamiliar laws, languages, practices, attitudes, management styles, work ethics and more. HR managers have a challenge to deal with more and more heterogeneous functions and more involvement in employee’s personal life.

2. Corporate Re-organizations

Liberalization has led to large scale reorganization of businesses in terms of expansions, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, take overs, and internal restructuring of organizations. In circumstances as dynamic and as uncertain as these, it is a challenge to manage employees’ anxiety, uncertainties, insecurities and fears.

3. New Organizational Forms

Exposure to international business and practices has led to change in the organizational structure and HR policies of the local companies. Take for instance, the hierarchical structure of Indian companies. Suddenly, Indian companies have begun to adopt flat hierarchical management structure. But to implement and grout such fundamental changes in management philosophy of any company is never easy. The challenge for HRM is to cope with the implications of these new relations in place of well-established hierarchical relationships that existed within the organizations for ages in the past.

4. Changing Demographics of Workforce

Changes in workforce are largely reflected by dual career couples, large chunk of young blood with contrasting ethos of work among old superannuating employees, growing number of women in workforce, working mothers, more educated and aware workers etc… Thus, changing demography of workforce has its own implications for HR managers and a true challenge to handle.

5. Changed Employee Expectations

With the changes in workforce demographics, employee expectations and attitudes have also transformed. Traditional allurements like job security, house, and remunerations are not much attractive today. Rather, employees are demanding empowerment and equality with management. Hence, it is a challenge for HRM to redesign the profile of workers, and discover new methods of hiring, training, remunerating and motivating employees.

6. New Industrial Relations Approach

In the changed industrial climate, even trade unions have realized that strikes and militancy have lost their relevance and not many workers are willing to join them and disrupt work. However, the problems faced by workforce now have different dimension for the management. They manifest in the form of increased attrition rate. Unsatisfied employees instead of approaching the management for resolution, often take up the new job. The challenge before the HRM is find ways and means to feel the pulse of employees and address the issues on proactive basis.

7. Renewed People Focus

“Man behind the machine is most important than the machine”. This is an old doctrine of the Armed Forces. However, this doctrine has begun to gain acceptance in the corporate world and thus all out efforts to grab the best talent at whatever cost.

8. Managing the Managers

Managing the managers is most difficult. Armed with inside information, they cannot be lured with rosy promises. They are in great demand too with growth in economy. These are the people who are most mobile, attrition rate being highest for the junior and middle management level. The challenge of HRM is how to manage this tribe?

9. Weaker Section’s Interests

Another challenge for HRM is to protect the interest of weaker sections of society. The dramatic increase of women workers, minorities and other backward communities in the workforce, coupled with weakening of trade unions, has resulted in the need for organizations to re-examine their policies, practices and values. In the name of global competition, productivity and quality, the interests of the society around should not be sacrificed. It is a challenge of today’s HR managers to see that these weaker sections are neither denied their rightful jobs nor are discriminated while in service.

10. Contribution to the Success of Organizations:

The biggest challenge to an HR manager is to make all employees contribute to the success of the organization in an ethical and socially responsible way. Because society’s wellbeing to a large extent depends on its organizations

Research Process

Research process involves six important steps:

Research Process

1. Problem Definition/Identification

The first step in the process is to identify a problem or develop a research question. The research problem may be something the organization identifies as a problem, some knowledge or information that is needed by the organization, or the desire to identify a trend.

If you are working in a company, the problem is assign by the top management; usually you get broad ideas regarding the problem. Then with the broad concept from the top management you define the specific problem statement.

Or if you are doing some research project then you have to identify your problem statement of your own. Remember your problem statement should be specific.

There are three aspects of research problem

  1. The specification of units to be studied
  2. The identification of the particular units within the scope of study
  3. The specification of the kind of information to be sought.

2. Research Proposal

Research proposal are necessary for all business research, it may be the internal proposal or it may be the external proposal. But research proposal is not required in case of research studies for P. hd., or paper presentation as concerned.

A proposal is known as a work plan, prospectus, outline, statement of intent, or draft plan. The proposal tells us what, why, how, where, and to whom it will be done.

The proposal of research is:

  1. To present the management question to be researched and its importance
  2. To discuss the research efforts of others who have worked on related management questions.
  3. To suggest the data necessary for solving the management question and how the data will be gathered, treated, and interpreted.

3. Research Design

A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It details the procedures necessary for obtaining the required information, and its purpose is to design a study that will test the hypotheses of interest, determine possible answers to the research questions, and provide the information needed for decision making.

Conducting exploratory research precisely defines the variables, and designing appropriate scales to measure them are also a part of the research design.

The issue of how the data should be obtained from the respondents (for example, by conducting a survey or an experiment) must be addressed. It is also necessary to design a questionnaire and a sampling plan to select respondents for the study.

More formally, formulating the research design involves the following steps:

  1. Definition of the information needed
  2. Secondary data analysis
  3. Qualitative research
  4. Methods of collecting quantitative data (survey, observation, and experimentation)
  5. Measurement and scaling procedures
  6. Questionnaire design
  7. Sampling process and sample size
  8. Plan of data analysis

4. Data Collection

Once the researcher has decided the ‘Research Design’, the next job is of data collection. For data to be useful, our observations need to be organized so that we can get some patterns and come to logical conclusions. Statistical investigation requires systematic collection of data, so that all relevant groups are represented in the data.

To determine the potential market for a new product, for example, the researcher might study 500 consumers in a certain geographical area. It must be ascertained that the group contains people representing variables such as income level, race, education and neighborhood. The quality of data will greatly affect the conclusions and hence, utmost importance must be given to this process and every possible precaution should be taken to ensure accuracy, while gathering and collecting data.

Depending upon the sources utilized, whether the data has come from actual observations or from records that are kept for normal purposes, statistical data can be classified into two categories, primary and secondary.

5. Data Analysis and Interpretation

Data preparation includes the editing, coding, transcription and verification of data. Each questionnaire or observation form is inspected or edited and, if necessary, corrected. Number or letter codes are assigned to represent each response to each question in the questionnaire. The data from the questionnaire are transcribed or key punched onto magnetic tape or disks, or input directly into the computer. The data are analyzed to derive information related to the components of the marketing research problem and, thus, provide input in to the management decision problem.

6. Report Writing

The entire project should be documented in a written report that addresses the specific research questions identified, describes the approach, the research design, data collection, and data analysis procedures adopted, and presents the results and the major

findings. The findings should be presented in a comprehensible format so that management can readily use them in the decision making process. In addition, an oral presentation should be made to management using tables, figures, and graphs to enhance clarity and impact.

 

 

Elements to be considered for Assessment Center

The following are the essential elements for a process to be considered an assessment center

1. Job Analysis

A job analysis of relevant behaviors must be conducted to determine the dimensions, competencies, attributes, and job performance indices important to job success in order to identify what should be evaluated by the assessment center. The type and extent of the job analysis depend on the purpose of assessment, the complexity of the job, the adequacy and appropriateness of prior information about the job, and the similarity of the new job to jobs that have been studied previously. If past job analyses and research are used to select dimensions and exercises for a new job, evidence of the comparability or generalizability of the jobs must be provided. If job does not currently exist, analyses can be done of actual or projected tasks or roles that will comprise the new job, position, job level, or job family.

Target dimensions can also be identified from an analysis of the vision, values, strategies, or key objectives of the organization. Competency-modeling procedures may be used to determine the dimensions/competencies to be assessed by the assessment center, if such procedures are conducted with the same rigor as traditional job analysis methods. Rigor in this regard is defined as the involvement of subject matter experts who are knowledgeable about job requirements, the collection and quantitative evaluation of essential job elements, and the production of evidence of reliable results. Any job analysis or competency modeling must result in clearly specified categories of behavior that can be observed in assessment procedures.

A “competency” may or may not be amenable to behavioral assessment as defined herein. A competency, as used in various contemporary sources, refers to an organizational strength, an organizational goal, a valued objective, a construct, or a grouping of related behaviors or attributes. A competency may be considered a behavioral dimension for the purposes of assessment in an assessment center if:

  • It can be defined precisely
  • Expressed in terms of behaviors observable on the job or in a job family and in simulation exercises.
  • A competency also must be shown to be related to success in the target job or position or job family.

2. Behavioral Classification

Assessment center requires that Behaviors displayed by participants must be classified into meaningful and relevant categories such as dimensions, attributes, characteristics, aptitudes, qualities, skills, abilities, competencies, and knowledge.

3. Assessment Techniques

The techniques used in the assessment center must be designed to provide information for evaluating the dimensions previously determined by the job analysis. Assessment center developers should establish a link from behaviors to competencies to exercises/ assessment techniques. This linkage should be documented in a competency-by exercise/ assessment technique matrix.

4. Multiple Assessments

Multiple assessment techniques must be used. These can include tests, interviews, questionnaires, socio-metric devices, and simulations. The assessment techniques are developed or chosen to elicit a variety of behaviors and information relevant to the selected competencies/ dimensions. Self-assessment and 360 degree assessment data may be gathered as assessment information. The assessment techniques will be pretested to ensure that the techniques provide reliable, objective and relevant behavioral information. Pre-testing might entail trial administration with participants similar to assessment center candidates, thorough review by subject matter experts as to the accuracy and representativeness of behavioral sampling and/or evidence from the use of these techniques for similar jobs in similar organizations.

5. Simulations

The assessment techniques must include a sufficient number of job related simulations to allow opportunities to observe the candidate’s behavior related to each competency/ dimension being assessed. At least one—and usually several—job related simulations must be included in each assessment center. A simulation is an exercise or technique designed to elicit behaviors related to dimensions of performance on the job requiring the participants to respond behaviorally to situational stimuli. Examples of simulations include, but are not limited to, group exercises, in-basket exercises, interaction (interview) simulations, presentations, and fact-finding exercises. Stimuli may also be presented through video based or virtual simulations delivered via computer, video, the Internet, or an intranet. Assessment center designers also should be careful to design exercises that reliably elicit a large number of competency-related behaviors. In turn, this should provide assessors with sufficient opportunities to observe competency-related behavior.

6. Assessors

Multiple assessors must be used to observe and evaluate each assessee. When selecting a group of assessors, consider characteristics such as diversity of age, sex, organizational level, and functional work area. Computer technology may be used to assess in those situations in which it can be shown that a computer program evaluates behaviors at least as well as a human assessor. The ratio of assessees to assessors is a function of several variables, including the type of exercises used, the dimensions to be evaluated, the roles of the assessors, the type of integration carried out, the amount of assessor training, the experience of the assessors, and the purpose of the assessment center. A typical ratio of assessees to assessors is two to one. A participant’s current supervisor should not be involved in the assessment of a direct subordinate when the resulting data will be used for selection or promotional purposes.

7. Assessor Training

Assessors must receive thorough training and demonstrate performance that meets requirements prior to participating in an assessment center. The training should focus on processing of information, drawing conclusions, interview techniques and understanding behavior.

8. Recording Behavior

A systematic procedure must be used by assessors to record specific behavioral observations accurately at the time of observation. This procedure might include techniques such as handwritten notes, behavioral observation scales, or behavioral checklists. Audio and video recordings of behavior may be made and analyzed at a later date.

9. Reports

Assessors must prepare a report of the observations made during each exercise before the integration discussion. It is suggested that assessors must prepare the report immediately after the assessment is over otherwise they are likely to forget the details. Not only this, these reports must be independently made.

10. Data Integration

The integration of behaviors must be based on a pooling of information from assessors or through a statistical integration process validated in accordance with professionally accepted standards. During the integration discussion of each dimension, assessors should report information derived from the assessment techniques but should not report information irrelevant to the purpose of the assessment process. The integration of information may be accomplished by consensus or by some other method of arriving at a joint decision. Methods of combining assessors’ evaluations of information must be supported by the reliability of the assessors’ discussions. Computer technology may also be used to support the data integration process provided the conditions of this section are met.

Evolution of HRM

Prior to 1900 when Human Resource Management as a specialized function did not exist all hiring, training and salary decisions were taken by individual managers/supervisors. If employees were not satisfied with the conditions they used to form unions and go on a strike to have their demands met.

As organizations started to grow and expand many managerial functions like production, marketing and personnel began to expand and came under the purview of specialists. The growth of organizations also led to the establishment of the first personnel departments about 1910. Work by individuals such as Frank and Lillian Gilbreth dealt with task design and efficiency.

HRM practices emerged during the industrial revolution in the 18th century when factories employed a large number of people to operate machines. Recruitment, payment and training became specialized activities, which required specialized people to do them for the organizations.

Since then, the HRM function has evolved both in its functions, roles and even in terminologies. For example:

  • Personnel administration
  • Manpower management
  • Personnel management
  • Human resource management
  • Strategic human resource management

This change in terminologies is a reflection of the paradigm shifts in business life.

A paradigm refers to a particular way of thinking about, seeing and doing things

Human resource gained more attention as the workforce considered to be an important resource to gain competitive advantage of organization and also it helpful in utilizing the resources of an organization to a optimum extent in order to achieve organizational goal.

Change in roles in HR

HR Functions

Assessment Centers

Employees are not contended by just having a job. They want growth and individual development in the organization. An “assessment centre” is a multiple assessment of several individuals performed simultaneously by a group of trained evaluators using a variety of group and individual exercises.

It is a process of evaluation an individual’s potential on the basis of multiple assessment technique, standardized method of making inferences and comments about particular candidates by the assessor.

Assessment centers are a more elaborate set of performance simulation tests, specifically designed to evaluate a candidate’s managerial potential. Line executives, supervisors, and/or trained psychologists evaluate candidates as they go through one to several days of exercises that simulate real problems that they would confront on the job.

Based on a list of descriptive dimensions that the actual job incumbent has to meet, activities might include interviews, in-basket problem-solving exercises, leaderless group discussions, and business decision games. For instance, a candidate might be required to play the role of a manager who must decide how to respond to ten memos in his/her in-basket within a two-hour period. Assessment centers have consistently demonstrated results that predict later job performance in managerial positions.

Common job simulations used in assessment centers are:

  1. In-basket exercises
  2. Group discussions
  3. Simulations of interviews with “subordinates” or “clients”
  4. Fact-finding exercises
  5. Analysis/decision-making problems
  6. Oral presentation exercises
  7. Written communication exercises

Assessment Centers Approach

The assessment center approach was first uses by German military psychologist during second world to select officers. Each candidate had to develop the cover story that would hide her or his identity during the assessment phase. In 1956 AT&T used this method for large-scale study of managerial progress and development. AT&T found that managerial skills and abilities are best means by the following procedures

  • Administrative skill
  • Interpersonal skill
  • Intellectual ability
  • Stability of performance
  • Work oriented motivation
  • Career orientation
  • Dependency on others

The assessment center provides great opportunity to assessor to evaluate the performance of the individual through the system in the long run because these centers do design a system for a particular job and then they see the job related performance. This helps the management in deciding the promotion or selection of the persons for the particular jobs. These centers are not being used for the non-management jobs because the running of soldier’s establishment is itself a big management.

Perhaps the most important feature of the assessment center method is that it relates not to current job performance, but to future performance.  By observing how a participant handles the problems and challenges of the target job or job level (as simulated in the exercises), assessors get a valid picture of how that person would perform in the target position.  This is especially useful when assessing individuals who hold jobs that don’t offer them an opportunity to exhibit behavior related to the target position or level.

Essential features of Assessment Center

  • Job analysis of relevant behaviors
  • Measurement techniques selected based on job analysis
  • Multiple measurement techniques used, including simulation exercises
  • Assessors’ behavioral observations classified into meaningful and relevant categories (dimensions, KSAOs)
  • Multiple observations made for each dimension
  • Multiple assessors used for each candidate
  • Assessors trained to a performance standard
  • Systematic methods of recording behavior
  • Assessors prepare behavior reports in preparation for integration
  • Integration of behaviors through:
    • Pooling of information from assessors and techniques; “consensus” discussion
    • Statistical integration process

Assessment Center Design

Assessment Center