Communism is an economic system where means of production are controlled and managed by a Central State Authority, and there is also a restriction on the ownership of personal property. In communism personal belongings, as clothing, watches, and shoes are allowed to be owned by individuals and the houses are owned by the State.
Communism is the extreme form of Socialism
In communism individuals are assigned work by the State and they are given a bit remuneration of their service normally in kind. People get ration from Government department. People do not have choice of their own. They have to be content with whatever is prescribed for them. State provides all social services such as educational, recreational and hospital facilities.
The common form of communalism is practiced on everyday religious ideas of the people. It can be in the form of religious prejudices, stereotypes of religions communities, supremacy of one religion over the other religions. These beliefs are so common that we often fail to detect even when we believe in it.
It leads to a search for political dominance of religious community over others. It takes the form of majoritarian dominance for majority community, for minority community, it can take form of a desire to form a separate political unit. In its most ugly form, communalism leads to riots and violence.
Merits of Communism
- Careful life
- Strict discipline and control of activities
- Full employment of manpower
- Rapid development and economic growth
- Equitable distribution of wealth
Demerits of Communism
- Absence of economic incentive for development
- Personal freedom is lost
- Mass production and standardization of production
- Workers are treated as machines
- Materialistic approaches to life problems
Central State Authority holds all means of production