There are numerous widely different interpretations of Human Resource Management; some are in shape of formal models. There is confusion over the definition but these also have some common elements.
HRM models can be said was the underlying facts which were unnoticed for many years. But it took it roots in 1970 when big companies came to know that Human Resource is the best resource which companies have.
But these HRM models have been made after an intensive research. That is why these principles were made and developed. These are the HRM models which forms the base of the HRM development. Basically HR concentrates on factors like ideology and philosophy. The models and maps of HRM include factors like comprehensiveness which includes strategies for pre and post recruitment. After that there is credibility which is the strongest factor in any company. Credibility includes trust and honesty which makes it complete.
Storey (1999) has distinguished between hard and soft forms of HRM, typified by the Michigan and Harvard models respectively. Hard HRF focuses on the resource side of human resource. It emphasizes on cost in the form of ‘headcount’ and places control firmly in the hand of the manager. Their role is to manage numbers effectively, keeping the workforce closely matched in terms of both bodies and behavior. Soft HRM, on other hand stresses on ‘human’ aspect of HRM. It is concerned with communication and motivation. People are led rather than managed. They are involved in determining and realizing strategic objectives.
Sisson (1990) contends that there are four major features that appear to some degree in all HRM models and theories:
- Integration of human resource policies with each other and with the organization’s business plan. HRM is a key instrument of business strategy, viewing employees as important assets.
- Responsibility for managing people moves from personnel specialists to senior (line) managers. Specialists provide a consultancy service for line managers.
- Employee relations shift away from collective bargaining – dialogue between management and unions. Instead, direct discussion between management and individual employees is encouraged.
- A stress on commitment to the organization and personal initiative.
Softer models of HRM typically suggest that HR managers should become:
- Enablers – structuring organizations to allow employees to achieve objectives.
- Empowerers – devolving decision-making to the lowest level.
- Facilitators – encouraging and assisting employees.
From this perspective, managers are no longer supervisors. The organizations move away from rigid hierarchies and power distinctions towards people taking responsibility for their own work.
Guest (1987) provides a fusion of various HRM approaches into a theory of HRM which incorporates a number of policy goals:
- Aim for a high level of commitment from employees, so that workers identify with the organization’s goals and contribute actively to its improvement and success.
- This enables the organization to obtain a high quality output from workers who want to continually improve standards.
- An expectation of flexibility from workers – willingness to depart from fixed job definitions, working practices and conditions.
- Strategic integration – all these strands link the organization’s strategy. They are directed towards agreed objectives and interact with each other in a cohesive way.