There are mainly four approaches to organizational behavior. They are:
- Human resources approach
- Contingency approach
- Productivity approach
- Systems approach
Human Resources Approach
The human resources approach is concerned with the growth and development of people towards higher levels of competency, creativity and fulfillment, because people are the central resource in any organization. This approach help employees become better in terms of work and responsibility and then it tries to create a climate in which they can contribute to the best of their improved abilities. This approach is also known as ‘supportive approach’ because the manager’s primary role changes from control of employees to providing an active support for their growth and performance.
A Contingency Approach
A contingency approach to organizational behaviour implies that different situations require different behavioral practices for effectiveness instead of following a traditional approach for all situations. Each situation must be analyzed carefully to determine the significant variables that exist in order to establish the more effective practices. The strength of this approach is that it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action. Thus, it helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organization in the most appropriate manner.
Productivity is a ratio that compares units of output with units of input. It is often measured in terms of economic inputs and outputs. Productivity is considered to be improved, if more outputs can be produced from the same amount of inputs. But besides economic inputs and outputs, human and social inputs and outputs also arc important.
A system is an interrelated part of an organization or a society that interacts with everyone related to that organization or society and functions as a whole. Within the organization ‘people’ employ ‘technology’ in performing the ‘task’ that they are responsible for, while the ‘structure’ of the organization serves as a basis for co-ordinating all their different activities. The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of each of these elements within the organization, if the organization as a whole is to function effectively. The other key aspect of the systems view of organization is its emphasis on the interaction between the organization and its broader environment,, which consists of social, economic, cultural and political environment within which they operate.
Organizations arc dependent upon their surrounding environment in two main ways: First, the organization requires ‘inputs’ from the environment in the form of raw material, people, money, ideas and so on. The organization itself can be thought of as performing certain ‘transformation’ processes, on its inputs in order to create outputs in the form of products or services. Secondly, the organization depends on environment such as, public to accept its output. The systems view of organization thus emphasizes on the key interdependencies that organizations must manage. Within themselves the organizations must trade off the interdependencies among people, tasks, technology and structure in order to perform their transformation processes effectively and efficiently. Organizations must also recognize their interdependence with the broader environments within which they exist.