In general there are three types of production systems, these are stated below
1. Job Production
In this system Products are manufactured to meet the requirements of a specific order. The quality involved is small and the manufacturing of the product will take place as per the specifications given by the customer. This system may be further classified as.
- The Job produced only once: Here the customer visit the firm and book his order. After the completion of the product, he takes delivery of the product and leaves the firm. He may not visit the firm to book the order for the same product. The firm has to plan for material, process and manpower only after receiving the order from the customer. The firms have no scope for pre-planning the production of the product.
- The job produced at irregular intervals: Here the customer visits the firm to place orders for the same type of the product at irregular intervals. The firm will not have any idea of customer’s visit. Here also planning for materials, process and manpower will start only after taking the order from the customer. In case the firm maintains the record of the Jobs Produced by it, it can refer to the previous plans, when the customer arrives at the firm to book the order.
- The Jobs Produced periodically at regular intervals: In this system, the customer arrives at the firm to place orders for the same type of product at regular intervals. Here firm knows very well that the customer visits at regular intervals, it can plan for materials and process and manpower and have them in a master file. As soon as the customer visits and books the order, the firm can start production. If the volume of the order is considerably large and the number of regularly visiting customers are large in number, the Job Production system slowly transform into Batch Production system.
2. Batch Production
Batch Production is the manufacture of number of identical products either to meet the specific order or to satisfy the demand. When the Production of plant and equipment is terminated, the plant and equipment can be used for producing similar products. This system also can be classified under three categories.
- A batch produced only once: Here customer places order with the firm for the product of his specification. The size of the order is greater than that of job production order. The firm has to plan for the resources after taking the order from the customer.
- A Batch produced at irregular intervals as per Customer order or when the need arises: As the frequency is irregular, the firm can maintain a file of its detailed plans and it can refer to its previous files and start production.
- A Batch Produced periodically at known Intervals: Here the firm either receives order from the customer at regular intervals or it may produce the product to satisfy the demand. It can have well designed file of its plans, material requirement and instructions for the ready reference. It can also purchase materials required in bulk in advance. As the frequency of regular orders goes on increasing the Batch Production system becomes Mass Production System. Here also, incase the demand for a particular product ceases, the plant and machinery can be used for producing other products with slight modification in layout or in machinery and equipment.
3. Continuous Production
Continuous Production system is the specialized manufacture of identical products on which the machinery and equipment is fully engaged. The continuous production is normally associated with large quantities and with high rate of demand. Hence the advantage of automatic production is taken. This system is classified as
- Mass Production: Here same type of product is produced to meet the demand of an assembly line or the market. This system needs good planning for material, process, maintenance of machines and instruction to operators. Purchases of materials in bulk quantities is advisable.
- Flow Production: The difference between Mass and Flow Production is the type of product and its relation to the plant. In Mass Production identical products are produced in large numbers. If the demand falls or ceases, the machinery and equipment, after slight modification be used for manufacturing products of similar nature. In flow production, the plant and equipment is designed for a specified product. Hence if the demand falls for the product or ceases, the plant cannot be used for manufacturing other products. It is to be scraped.
The examples for the above discussed production system are
(i) Job Production Shop: Tailors shop; cycle and vehicles repair shops, Job typing shops, small Workshops.
(ii) Batch Production Shop: Tyre Production Shops, Readymade dress companies, Cosmetic manufacturing companies…etc.
(iii) Mass Production Shops: Components of industrial products,
(iv) Flow Production: Cement Factory, Sugar factory, Oil refineries…etc.,